What is port mirroring?
Port Mirroring, also known as SPAN (Switched Port Analyzer), is a method of monitoring network traffic. With port mirroring enabled, the switch sends a copy of all network packets seen on one port (or an entire VLAN) to another port, where the packet can be analyzed.
Port Mirroring function is supported by almost all enterprise-class switches (managed switches).
Port mirroring copies packets entering or exiting a port or entering a VLAN and sends the copies to a local interface for local monitoring or to a VLAN for remote monitoring. Use port mirroring to send traffic to applications that analyze traffic for purposes such as monitoring compliance, enforcing policies, detecting intrusions, monitoring and predicting traffic patterns, correlating events, and so on.
Port mirroring is needed for traffic analysis on a switch because a switch normally sends packets only to the port to which the destination device is connected. You configure port mirroring on the switch to send copies of unicast traffic to a local interface or a VLAN and run an analyzer application on a device connected to the interface or VLAN. You configure port mirroring by using the analyzer statement.
Keep performance in mind when configuring port mirroring. For example, If you mirror traffic from multiple ports, the mirrored traffic may exceed the capacity of the output interface. We recommend that you limit the amount of copied traffic by selecting specific interfaces instead of using the all keyword. You can also limit the amount of mirrored traffic by using a firewall filter. Mirroring only the necessary packets reduces the possibility of a performance impact.
You can use port mirroring to copy any of the following:
- All packets entering or exiting an interface (in any combination)—For example, you can send copies of the packets entering some interfaces and the packets exiting other interfaces to the same local interface or VLAN. If you configure port mirroring to copy packets exiting an interface, traffic that originates on that switch or Node device (in a QFabric system) is not copied when it egresses. Only switched traffic is copied on egress. (See the limitation on egress mirroring below.)
- All packets entering a VLAN—You cannot use port mirroring to copy packets exiting a VLAN.
- Firewall-filtered sample—Sample of packets entering a port or VLAN. Configure a firewall filter to select certain packets for mirroring.